# Euler waveguide bend#

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Efficiently routing light in a densely packed photonic chip has been a central topic in the photonic industry. This inevitably requires the use of waveguide bends of various angles and radii. Electromagnetic waves can travel in straight waveguides for a long distance with very little loss. However, when it enters a waveguide bend, significant reflection and leakage could occur.

The most common waveguide bends are circular bends. A silicon waveguide bend typically has a loss in the order of 0.01 dB. This loss is sufficiently small for many applications. However, in cases where a large number of bends are used, the total loss due to the bends can be quite large. Therefore, new methods to reduce bending loss is needed. Recently, T. Fujisawa et al. demonstrated that a waveguide bend following the clothoid curve, also known as the Euler bend, yields a much lower loss compared to a circular bend due to its smooth curvature transition. In this example notebook, we model a 90 degree Euler waveguide bend and compare its loss to a conventional circular bend. The loss of the Euler waveguide bend is found to be several times smaller compared to the circular bend of the same effective radius at the telecom wavelength. :

import tidy3d as td
import tidy3d.web as web

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import scipy.integrate as integrate
from scipy.optimize import fsolve


[22:13:17] WARNING  This version of Tidy3D was pip installed from the 'tidy3d-beta' repository on   __init__.py:102
PyPI. Future releases will be uploaded to the 'tidy3d' repository. From now on,

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## Clothoid Bend vs. Circular Bend#

The expression for a clothoid curve (Euler curve) whose starting point is at the origin is given by

$x = A \int_{0}^{L/A} cos(\frac{\theta^2}{2})d\theta,$
$y = A \int_{0}^{L/A} sin(\frac{\theta^2}{2})d\theta,$

and

$RL=A^2,$

where $$A$$ is the clothoid parameter, $$L$$ is the curve length from $$(0,0)$$ to $$(x,y)$$, and $$1/R$$ is the curvature at $$(x,y)$$. At the end point of the clothoid curve, the curve length is $$L_{max}$$ and the curvature is $$1/R_{min}$$. Unlike a circular curve, the curvature of a clothoid curve varies linearly from 0 to $$1/R_{min}$$. A 90 degree Euler waveguide bend is constructed by connecting two pieces of clothoid curves with a circular curve. One clothoid curve starts at $$(0,0)$$ and the other starts at $$(R_{eff},R_{eff})$$, where $$R_{eff}$$ is the effective waveguide bending radius. To ensure a smooth transition of curvature, we choose a $$L_{max}$$ such that the derivative is continuous at the connecting points.

In this example notebook, we model waveguide bends with a 4 $$\mu m$$ effective bending radius. First, we plot the shapes of the two types of bends to get a sense of how the Euler bend and the circular bend differ. More specifically, we try the case with $$A=2.4$$.

:

R_eff = 4  # effective radius of the bend
A = 2.4  # clothoid parameter



An important step in constructing the Euler bend is to determine $$L_{max}$$. Here we do it numerically by first setting $$L_{max}=0$$. $$L_{max}$$ is then slowly increased at some small step. At each increment, we check if the tangent curve is perpendicular to that of the circular curve. Once this condition is met, we obtain the correct value of $$L_{max}$$ as well as the coordinates of the clothoid.

:

L_max = 0  # starting point of L_max
precision = 0.05  # increasement of L_max at each iteration
tolerance = 0.01  # difference tolerance of the derivatives

# determine L_max
while True:
L_max = L_max + precision  # update L_max
Ls = np.linspace(0, L_max, 50)  # L at (x1,y1)
x1 = np.zeros(len(Ls))  # x coordinate of the clothoid curve
y1 = np.zeros(len(Ls))  # y coordinate of the clothoid curve

# compute x1 and y1 using the above integral equations
for i, L in enumerate(Ls):
y1[i], err = integrate.quad(lambda theta: A * np.sin(theta**2 / 2), 0, L / A)
x1[i], err = integrate.quad(lambda theta: A * np.cos(theta**2 / 2), 0, L / A)

# compute the derivative at L_max
k = -(x1[-1] - x1[-2]) / (y1[-1] - y1[-2])
xp = x1[-1]
yp = y1[-1]
# check if the derivative is continuous at L_max
R = np.sqrt(
((R_eff + k * xp - yp) / (k + 1) - xp) ** 2
+ (-(R_eff + k * xp - yp) / (k + 1) + R_eff - yp) ** 2
)
if np.abs(R - A**2 / L_max) < tolerance:
break

# after L_max is determined, R_min is also determined
R_min = A**2 / L_max



After determining the first piece of the clothoid curve, the second piece can be obtained simply by mirroring it with respect to $$y=-x+R_{eff}$$.

:

# getting the coordinates of the second clothoid curve by mirroring the first curve with respect to y=-x+R_eff
x3 = np.flipud(R_eff - y1)
y3 = np.flipud(R_eff - x1)



The last step is to determine the circular curve connecting the clothoid curves. This can be done simply by enforcing a circle $$(x-a)^2+(y-b)^2=R_{min}^2$$ to pass the endpoints of the clothoid curves. Here, we use the fsolve function from scipy.optimize to solve for $$a$$ and $$b$$.

:

# solve for the parameters of the circular curve
def circle(var):
a = var
b = var
Func = np.empty((2))
Func = (xp - a) ** 2 + (yp - b) ** 2 - R_min**2
Func = (R_eff - yp - a) ** 2 + (R_eff - xp - b) ** 2 - R_min**2
return Func

a, b = fsolve(circle, (0, R_eff))

# calculate the coordinates of the circular curve
x2 = np.linspace(xp + 0.01, R_eff - yp - 0.01, 50)
y2 = -np.sqrt(R_min**2 - (x2 - a) ** 2) + b



Now we have obtained the coordinates of the whole Euler bend, we can plot it with a conventional circular bend to see the difference. Compared to the circular bend, we can see the Euler bend has a smaller curvature at $$(0,0)$$ and $$(R_{eff},R_{eff})$$. This allows a slower transition to and from the straight waveguides, which leads to smaller reflection and scattering loss.

:

# obtain the coordinates of the whole Euler bend by concatenating three pieces together
x_euler = np.concatenate((x1, x2, x3))
y_euler = np.concatenate((y1, y2, y3))

# the conventional circular bend is simply given by a circle
x_circle = np.linspace(0, R_eff, 100)
y_circle = -np.sqrt(R_eff**2 - (x_circle) ** 2) + R_eff

# plotting the shapes of the Euler bend and the circular bend
plt.plot(x_euler, y_euler, label="Euler bend")
plt.plot(x_circle, y_circle, "--", label="Circular bend")
plt.axis("equal")
plt.ylim(-1, R_eff + 1)
plt.legend()


:

<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x132f59f00> ## Loss of a Circular Bend#

We first simulate a circular waveguide bend as a baseline reference. Then in the next section, we will simulate an Euler bend and compare their losses quantitatively. Both simulations share the same parameters and simulation setup. The only difference is the bend structure.

:

lda0 = 1.55  # central wavelength
freq0 = td.C_0 / lda0  # central frequency
ldas = np.linspace(1.5, 1.6, 100)  # simulation wavelength range
freqs = td.C_0 / ldas  # simulation wavelength range
fwidth = 0.5 * (np.max(freqs) - np.min(freqs))  # frequency width of the souce


:

t = 0.21  # thickness of the waveguide
w = 0.4  # width of the waveguide
inf_eff = 100  # effective infinity of the simulation
buffer = 1  # buffer distance



The silicon waveguide on the oxide substrate has an oxide top cladding. Therefore, we will define two materials for the simulations. Both are modeled as non-dispersive in this case.

:

n_si = 3.476  # silicon refractive index
si = td.Medium(permittivity=n_si**2)

n_sio2 = 1.444  # silicon oxide refractive index
sio2 = td.Medium(permittivity=n_sio2**2)



In the previous section, we obtained the coordinates that describe the Euler bend and the circular bend. To construct the 3D waveguide bend structure, we define a helper function here. The idea is to take the coordinates of the curve and transform them into the vertices of the waveguide bend with a given width and thickness. Then a 3D structure is created as a PolySlab.

:

# function that takes the x and y coordinates of a curve and returns a waveguide bend structure with a given width and thickness
def line_to_structure(x, y, w, t):
# calculate the inverse of the derivative
k = np.diff(y) / np.diff(x)
k = np.insert(k, 0, 0)

# compute the coordinates of the upper boundary of the waveguide bend
y_top = w / (2 * np.sqrt(k**2 + 1)) + y
x_top = -k * w / (2 * np.sqrt(k**2 + 1)) + x

# adding the coordinates of the straight waveguides
x_top = np.insert(x_top, 0, -inf_eff)
y_top = np.insert(y_top, 0, w / 2)
x_top = np.append(x_top, R_eff - w / 2)
y_top = np.append(y_top, inf_eff)

# compute the coordinates of the lower boundary of the waveguide bend
y_bottom = -w / (2 * np.sqrt(k**2 + 1)) + y
x_bottom = k * w / (2 * np.sqrt(k**2 + 1)) + x

# adding the coordinates of the straight waveguides
x_bottom = np.insert(x_bottom, 0, -inf_eff)
y_bottom = np.insert(y_bottom, 0, -w / 2)
x_bottom = np.append(x_bottom, R_eff + w / 2)
y_bottom = np.append(y_bottom, inf_eff)

# construct vertices
x = np.concatenate((x_bottom, np.flipud(x_top)))
y = np.concatenate((y_bottom, np.flipud(y_top)))
vertices = np.transpose(np.vstack((x, y)))

return td.Structure(
geometry=td.PolySlab(vertices=vertices, axis=2, slab_bounds=(0, t)), medium=si
)



Use the line_to_structure function to create the circular bend structure.

:

circular_bend = line_to_structure(x_circle, y_circle, w, t)



Defined a ModeSource for excitation, a FluxMonitor for detecting transmission, and a FieldMonitor to visualize the field propagation and leakage in the bend. The fundamental TE mode is excited in the input waveguide. All boundaries are set to PML for efficient absorption of the outgoing radiation.

:

# add a mode source that launches the fundamental te mode
mode_source = td.ModeSource(
center=(-buffer, 0, t / 2),
size=(0, 4 * w, 6 * t),
source_time=td.GaussianPulse(freq0=freq0, fwidth=fwidth),
direction="+",
mode_spec=td.ModeSpec(num_modes=1, target_neff=n_si),
mode_index=0,
)

# add a flux monitor to measure transmission
flux_monitor = td.FluxMonitor(
center=(R_eff, R_eff + buffer, t / 2),
size=(4 * w, 0, 6 * t),
freqs=freqs,
name="flux",
)

# add a field monitor to visualize field propagation and leakage in the bend
field_monitor = td.FieldMonitor(
center=(R_eff / 2, R_eff / 2, t / 2),
size=(td.inf, td.inf, 0),
freqs=[freq0],
colocate=True,
name="field",
)

run_time = 5e-13  # simulation run time

# define simulation
sim = td.Simulation(
center=(R_eff / 2, R_eff / 2, t / 2),
size=(R_eff + 2 * w + lda0, R_eff + 2 * w + lda0, 10 * t),
grid_spec=td.GridSpec.auto(min_steps_per_wvl=20, wavelength=lda0),
structures=[circular_bend],
sources=[mode_source],
monitors=[flux_monitor, field_monitor],
run_time=run_time,
boundary_spec=td.BoundarySpec.all_sides(
boundary=td.PML()
),  # pml is applied in all boundaries
medium=sio2,
)  # background medium is set to sio2 because of the substrate and upper cladding

# visualize the circular bend structure
sim.plot(z=0)


:

<AxesSubplot: title={'center': 'cross section at z=0.00'}, xlabel='x', ylabel='y'> Submit the simulation job to the server.

:

job = web.Job(simulation=sim, task_name="circular_bend")
sim_data_circular = job.run(path="data/simulation_data_circular.hdf5")


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[22:13:20] INFO     Created task 'circular_bend' with task_id '88988a1f-5410-453a-b1f7-bcbd2ade59d7'. webapi.py:120

[22:13:22] INFO     Maximum FlexUnit cost: 0.025                                                      webapi.py:252

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[22:13:25] INFO     status = preprocess                                                               webapi.py:273

[22:13:29] INFO     starting up solver                                                                webapi.py:277

[22:13:39] INFO     running solver                                                                    webapi.py:283

[22:13:43] INFO     early shutoff detected, exiting.                                                  webapi.py:294

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[22:13:44] INFO     status = success                                                                  webapi.py:306

[22:13:45] INFO     Billed FlexUnit cost: 0.025                                                       webapi.py:310

           INFO     downloading file "output/monitor_data.hdf5" to                                    webapi.py:592
"data/simulation_data_circular.hdf5"

[22:13:47] INFO     loading SimulationData from data/simulation_data_circular.hdf5                    webapi.py:414


After the simulation is complete, we first plot the bending loss as a function of wavelength. The circular bend exhibits a bending loss ~0.015 dB, which is already pretty low. In many applications, circular waveguide bends can meet the requirement.

:

T_circular = sim_data_circular[
"flux"
].flux  # extract the transmission data from the flux monitor

# plot the bending loss as a function of wavelength
plt.plot(ldas, -10 * np.log10(T_circular))
plt.xlim(1.5, 1.6)
plt.ylim(0, 0.03)
plt.xlabel("Wavelength ($\mu m$)")
plt.ylabel("Bending loss (dB)")


:

Text(0, 0.5, 'Bending loss (dB)') To inspect where the loss occurs in the bend, we plot the field intensity in log scale. Since we will perform the same plot for the Euler bend later on, we define a helper function here.

The energy leakage manifests as field intensity outside of the waveguide. Here we can see that a significant leakage occurs around the transition region where the straight waveguide meets the circular waveguide. This is due to the abrupt change of curvature.

:

def plot_E_in_log(sim_data):
Ex = sim_data["field"].Ex.abs
Ey = sim_data["field"].Ey.abs
Ez = sim_data["field"].Ez.abs
E = np.log10(Ex**2 + Ey**2 + Ez**2)
E.plot(x="x", vmin=-1, vmax=5, cmap=plt.cm.nipy_spectral)

# since some field values will be very close to 0, numpy will throw a warning when taking the log10
# here we turn off numpy warning
np.seterr(divide="ignore")
plot_E_in_log(sim_data_circular) ## Loss of an Euler Bend#

Next, we perform a similar simulation for the Euler waveguide bend and compare the results to the circular bend. The Euler waveguide bend structure is made by using the line_to_structure function we defined earlier. Since the simulation setup is the same as the previous one with the only difference being the structures, we can simply copy the previous simulation and update the structures.

:

# create the euler waveguide bend structure
euler_bend = line_to_structure(x_euler, y_euler, w, t)

# construct the simulation by copying the previous simulation and updating the structure
sim = sim.copy(update={"structures": [euler_bend]})

# visualize the euler bend structure
sim.plot(z=0)


:

<AxesSubplot: title={'center': 'cross section at z=0.00'}, xlabel='x', ylabel='y'> Submit the simulation to the server.

:

job = web.Job(simulation=sim, task_name="circular_bend")
sim_data_euler = job.run(path="data/simulation_data_euler.hdf5")


[22:13:48] INFO     Created task 'circular_bend' with task_id '7684de33-1890-4117-97d0-0749f6e67a09'. webapi.py:120

[22:13:50] INFO     Maximum FlexUnit cost: 0.025                                                      webapi.py:252

           INFO     status = queued                                                                   webapi.py:261

[22:13:53] INFO     status = preprocess                                                               webapi.py:273

[22:13:59] INFO     starting up solver                                                                webapi.py:277

[22:14:10] INFO     running solver                                                                    webapi.py:283

[22:14:16] INFO     early shutoff detected, exiting.                                                  webapi.py:294

           INFO     status = postprocess                                                              webapi.py:300

[22:14:18] INFO     status = success                                                                  webapi.py:306

           INFO     Billed FlexUnit cost: 0.025                                                       webapi.py:310

           INFO     downloading file "output/monitor_data.hdf5" to "data/simulation_data_euler.hdf5"  webapi.py:592

[22:14:20] INFO     loading SimulationData from data/simulation_data_euler.hdf5                       webapi.py:414


After the simulation is complete, we plot the bending loss of the Euler bend against that of the circular bend. Here we see that the Euler bend has a lower loss ~0.005 dB. In terms of absolute loss, both bends are very good. However, when a large number of waveguide bends are used in an integrated photonic circuit, the advantage of the Euler bend can be quite significant.

:

T_euler = sim_data_euler["flux"].flux
plt.plot(ldas, -10 * np.log10(T_circular), label="Circular bend")
plt.plot(ldas, -10 * np.log10(T_euler), label="Euler bend")
plt.xlim(1.5, 1.6)
plt.ylim(0, 0.03)
plt.xlabel("Wavelength ($\mu m$)")
plt.ylabel("Bending loss (dB)")
plt.legend()


:

<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x142ca4970> Similarly, we plot the field intensity in log scale. From the plot, we can see that the leakage around the transition regions is indeed reduced. This is due to the fact that the curvature of the Euler curve varies smoothly.

:

plot_E_in_log(sim_data_euler) [ ]: